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Secular trends in opportunistic infections, cancers and mortality in patients with AIDS during the era of modern combination antiretroviral therapy
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Objectives: The aim of the study was to estimate the incidence of, determine risk factors for, and investigate the consequences of opportunistic infections (OIs) and malignancies among patients with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in the era of modern combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Methods: Three enrolment periods (1998–2002, 2003–2005 and 2006–2012), corresponding to changes in predominant cART regimens, were compared among 1889 participants enrolled in a prospective cohort study, the Longitudinal Study of Ocular Complications of AIDS (LSOCA). Incidences of AIDS-related OIs and cancers were estimated. Multivariate logistic and Cox regression models were used to determine the effect of demographic and clinical characteristics on OIs and mortality. Results: Between participants enrolled in the 1998–2002 and 2006–2012 enrolment periods, the incidence of OIs decreased from 27 per 1000 person-years (PY) to 11 per 1000 PY (P < 0.001), and mortality decreased from 41 per 1000 PY to 18 per 1000 PY (P < 0.0001), corresponding to improvements in cART regimens. Conclusions: Improvements in cART regimens led to a progressive decline in the incidence of OIs and mortality between 1999 and 2013 among patients with AIDS in the era of modern cART.