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Title: Formulation of gluten-free cookies utilizing chickpea, carob, and hazelnut flours through mixture design
Authors: Doğruer, Ilgın
Başer, Filiz
Güleç, Şükrü
Tokatlı, Figen
Özen, Banu
Keywords: Gluten-free cookie
Chickpea flour
Carob flour
Hazelnut flour
Issue Date: 2023
Publisher: MDPI
Abstract: Legume flours, which offer high nutritional quality, present viable options for gluten-free bakery products. However, they may have an objectionable flavor and taste for some consumers. In this study, it was aimed to improve the gluten-free cookie formulation by incorporating carob and hazelnut flours to pre-cooked chickpea flour and to investigate the techno-functional properties of the formulated cookies. The flours used in the formulations were assessed for their chemical and physical properties. This study employed a mixture design (simplex-centroid) to obtain the proportions of the flours to be used in the cookie formulations. The rheological characteristics of the doughs and the technological attributes of the baked cookies were determined. The addition of the hazelnut and carob flours had the overall effect of reducing the rheological characteristics of the cookie doughs. Furthermore, the textural attribute of the hardness of the baked cookies decreased as the ratio of hazelnut flour in the formulations was raised. The analysed results and sensory evaluation pointed to a formulation consisting of 30% pre-cooked chickpea/30% carob/30% hazelnut flours, which exhibited improved taste and overall acceptability scores. A total of 16.82 g/100 g of rapidly digestible starch, 5.36 g/100 g of slowly digestible starch, and 8.30 g/100 g of resistant starch exist in this particular cookie. As a result, combinations of chickpea, hazelnut, and carob flours hold promise as good alternatives for gluten-free cookie ingredients and warrant further exploration in the development of similar products.
ISSN: 2304-8158
Appears in Collections:Food Engineering / Gıda Mühendisliği
PubMed İndeksli Yayınlar Koleksiyonu / PubMed Indexed Publications Collection
Scopus İndeksli Yayınlar Koleksiyonu / Scopus Indexed Publications Collection
WoS İndeksli Yayınlar Koleksiyonu / WoS Indexed Publications Collection

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