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Non-linear rheological behavior of gluten-free flour doughs and correlations of LAOS parameters with gluten-free bread properties
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Predicting loaf volume development of gluten free baked products to have similar properties to wheat products remains a challenge and there is no good marker for loaf volume. Large Amplitude Oscillatory Shear (LAOS) flow experiments and baking tests were conducted on rice, buckwheat, quinoa, and soy flour doughs to understand if there is any correlation between the non-linear rheological properties and loaf volume. The challenging water absorption capacities were determined by matching the η* vs. frequency data of the gluten free flours with that of the soft wheat flour dough with moisture content at 500 BU. 110%, 90%, 85%, and 160% water levels were found as optimal for rice, buckwheat, quinoa, and soy flour, respectively. The comparison of elastic Lissajous-Bowditch curves showed that the stronger non-linearities were seen at low frequencies and the wider the loop, the weaker the structure and the more structural breakdown with an order of soft wheat, soy, buckwheat, quinoa and rice flour doughs. Secondary loops have been observed in viscous Lissajous-Bowditch curves which are related to the strong non-linearities in elastic stress. The distributions of elastic and viscous LAOS parameters showed that soy dough has the closest rheological performance to wheat dough among other dough samples, which has the highest protein content. GL ′ and GM ′ values at 10 rad/s and 200% strain showed the best correlation among all LAOS parameters with the loaf volume. The strain stiffening/softening property e3/e1 complemented the mechanistic explanations which were offered using GL ′ and GM ′ values.