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Monetite promoting effect of citric acid on brushite cement setting kinetics
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Brushite forming calcium phosphate cements receive growing interest in hard tissue scaffold applications due to their high surface area and high bioresorbability. The finer microstructure of monetite, the dehydrated form of brushite, has attracted attention for bone tissue engineering applications. The reduction in brushite content of the b-tricalcium phosphate-monocalcium phosphate monohydrate cement system by selective inhibition of growth upon addition of citric acid to excess setting liquid was investigated. The relaxation period during cement setting was monitored by pH stat titration and free drift runs. Spectrometric analysis revealed that the change in solubility of calcium phosphates upon addition of citric acid caused the inhibition of brushite formation and promotion of monetite precipitation. Dissolution of monetite crystals was insensitive to citrate adsorption despite their lower surface area compared to brushite. Overall brushite/ monetite ratio decreased consistently with increasing citric acid concentration in the of 0?1-0?5M range.