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Investigating the effects of food matrix and food components on bioaccessibility of pomegranate (Punica granatum) phenolics and anthocyanins using an in-vitro gastrointestinal digestion model
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Effects of food matrix and individual food components on potential bioaccessibility of pomegranate were investigated by means of simulating in vitro gastrointestinal (GI) digestion. The foodstuffs (sunflower oil, skim milk, cooked lean meat, bread, skim yogurt, probiotic yogurt, apple, lemon, honey, soy milk, cream, and soybean) and the food components (gluten, casein, isolated meat protein, lactose, fructose, galactose, glucose, salt, ascorbic acid, starch, cooked starch, tocopherol, linoleic acid, cellulose, citric acid and pectin) were codigested with pomegranate in model systems to better understand matrix effects. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total anthocyanin content (TAC) were determined by spectrophotometric methods and major phenolics/anthocyanins were analyzed by RP-HPLC/PDA detection both before and after in vitro GI digestion at post gastric (PG), dialyzable (IN) and non-dialyzable (OUT) fractions. Phenolics of pomegranate were found to be stable during gastric conditions (115%), with 25% loss in pancreatic digestion, available (14%) in IN. Although preserved (89%) in PG, anthocyanins were lost in pancreatic digestion (38%), but still available (12%) in IN. Milk, bread, yogurt, probiotic yogurt, lactose, starch, cellulose, salt, citric acid or tocopherol codigestion with pomegranate decreased TPC for all fractions. Proteins affected losses in PG and OUT fractions. Carbohydrates such as starch, lactose, glucose and pectin appeared to affect the loss of phenolics and exerted 2-fold decreases in serum fraction (IN). For TAC, only meat, soymilk or cream codigestion with pomegranate resulted in IN losses. Proteins did not significantly affect TAC in IN, but were inhibitory in PG. However, carbohydrates and fatty acids significantly increased TAC in IN. Generally cyanidins were found to be more stable in food matrices and pancreatic conditions than other anthocyanins.