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Characterization and classification of Turkish wines based on elemental composition
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Commercial wines from 13 native and nonnative varieties in Turkey were analyzed for their elemental composition. Wines from four vintages (2006-2009) were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma with atomic emission spectrometry and mass spectroscopy (ICP-AES and ICP-MS) followed by multivariate statistics to study vintage, varietal, and regional differences. According to the partial least squares-discriminant analysis, wines from western regions could be discriminated with their higher Pb content. The red wines of two native grapes, Boǧazkere and Öküzgözü, were separated from the remaining varieties based on their high Ca and low B and Cu levels. Öküzgözü wines were different from Syrah and Cabernet Sauvignon wines. Similarly, native Emir wines showed differences from Muscat wines. The effective variables for discrimination analysis were natural minerals (Sr, Li, Al, Ba, and B) and minerals originating from agricultural activities, processing, or pollution (Ca, Cu, Mg, Co, Pb, and Ni). Characteristics of Turkish wines from native and nonnative grape varieties such as Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Syrah, and Chardonnay were defined in terms of their mineral content for the first time.