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Development of flexible zein-wax composite and zein-fatty acid blend films for controlled release of lysozyme
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The aim of this study was controlled release of lysozyme by modification of hydrophobicity and morphology of zein films using composite and blend film making methods. The incorporation of beeswax, carnauba or candelilla wax into films at 5% (w/w) of zein gave composite films containing amorphous wax particles, while incorporation of oleic acid into film at 5% of zein caused formation of blend films containing many spherical zein capsules within their matrix. The lysozyme release rates of composites reduced as the melting point of waxes increased. The composites and blends showed 2.5 to 17 fold lower lysozyme release rates than controls. The films were effectively plasticized by using catechin. The catechin also provided antioxidant activity of films (up to 69 mu mol Trolox/cm(2)) and contributed to their controlled release properties by reducing film porosity. The films showed antimicrobial activity against Listeria innocua. This work showed the possibility of obtaining advanced edible films having flexibility, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity and controlled release properties.