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Phenolic characterization and geographical classification of commercial extra virgin olive oils produced in Turkey
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The aim of this research was to characterize the extra virgin olive oil samples from different locations in the Aegean coastal area of Turkey in terms of their phenolic compositions for two consecutive years to show the classification of oil samples with respect to harvest year and geography. Forty seven commercial olive oil samples were analyzed with HPLC-DAD, and 17 phenolic compounds were quantified. Hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, vanillic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, cinnamic acid, luteolin and apigenin were the characteristic phenols observed in all oil samples for two harvest years. Syringic acid, vanillin and m-coumaric acid were the phenolic compounds appeared in the olive oil depending on the harvest year. Partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) of data revealed that oils from the north Aegean and south Aegean areas had different phenolic profiles. The phenolic compounds, which played significant roles in the discrimination of the olive oils, were tyrosol, oleuropein aglycon, cinnamic acid, apigenin and hydroxytyrosol to tyrosol ratio. The Aegean coastal region is the largest olive oil producer and exporter of Turkey. This study shows that the olive oils from different parts of the region have their own defining characteristics that can be used in the authentication studies and geographical labeling of Turkish olive oils. © AOCS 2011.