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Open cell lead foams: processing, microstructure, and mechanical properties
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Open cell lead foams with the porosities between 48 and 74 % were prepared by means of powder metallurgical and casting routes, using ammonium bicarbonate particles, silica beads, and sodium chloride salt particles as space holder. The resulting foam samples structure closely resembled open cell foam structure: each cell had few interconnections with neighboring cells. Small-sized lead (II) fluoride precipitates were microscopically observed in the interior of cells in the foam samples prepared using silica beads as space holder, resulting from the reaction between silica and hydrofluoric acid in the space holder dissolution step. The compression stress–strain curve of foam samples prepared by powder metallurgical route showed brittle deformation behavior following the initial elastic deformation region, while the foam samples prepared by casting route showed characteristic foam deformation behavior: cell edge crushing on the bent cell walls, and cell wall tearing. The collapse stresses, densification strains, and elastic moduli of the prepared foams were further fitted with scaling relations.