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Optimization of the associative growth of novel yoghurt cultures in the production of biomass, β-galactosidase and lactic acid using response surface methodology
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The associative growth of Streptococcus thermophilus 95/2 (St 95/2) and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus 77 (Lb 77) isolated from the Toros mountain region of Turkey was investigated with respect to lactic acid, biomass and β-galactosidase enzyme production using response surface methodology (RSM). The ratio (St 95/2:Lb 77) of the strains and media formulation had significant effect on all responses (p < 0.001). The predicted enzyme activity (2.14 U mL-1), lactic acid (22.50 g L-1) and biomass (7.11 g L-1) production at optimum conditions were very close to the actual experimental values (2.14 U mL-1, 22.94 g L-1 and 7.86 g L-1, respectively). The optimum conditions were to use these cultures in a ratio of 1.66:1.62 (St 95/2:Lb 77) in a medium containing whey (5%), corn steep liquor (4%), potassium phosphate (2%) and peptone (2%) at 43 °C for 8 h. The associative growth provided 6.4% and 39% more β-galactosidase activity and 8.73% and 44% more lactic acid compared with the results obtained using pure St 95/2 and Lb 77 strains, respectively.