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Finite element and coupled finite element/smooth particle hydrodynamics modeling of the quasi-static crushing of empty and foam-filled single, bitubular and constraint hexagonal- and square-packed aluminum tubes
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The quasi-static axial crushing behavior of empty and Al and polystyrene foam-filled Al single, bitubular and multi-tube-packed (hexagonal and square packing) configurations were investigated experimentally and numerically. Tubes were modeled using finite element and coupled finite element/smooth particle hydrodynamics. The numerical specific absorbed energy (SAE) values, deformation patterns, load values and number of folds formed were found to show agreements with those of experiments. Among the tested tube configurations only hexagonal- and square-packed empty tube designs showed increased SAE values over that of single empty tube. Furthermore, foam-filled multi-tube designs both hexagonal- and square-packed designs were found energetically more efficient than Al foam-filled single tubes at similar foam filler densities. The increased SAE values of multi-tubes were attributed to the frictional forces of the multi-tube designs and constraining effect of the die walls accommodating the tubes.