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Properties of Roman bricks and mortars used in Serapis temple in the city of Pergamon
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Serapis temple, which was constructed in the Roman period in the city of Pergamon (Bergama/Turkey), is one of the most important monuments of the world heritage. In this study, the characteristics of bricks and mortars used in the temple have been determined in order to define the necessary characteristics of the intervention materials, which will be used in the conservation works of the temple. Several analyses were carried out to determine their basic physical properties, raw material compositions, mineralogical and microstructural properties using X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscope and a Thermo Gravimetric Analyzer. Analysis results indicated that the mortars are stiff, compact and hydraulic due to the use of natural pozzolanic aggregates. The Roman bricks are of low density, high porosity and were produced from raw materials containing calcium poor clays fired at low temperatures.