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Title: Spatial graphoids
Authors: Gugumcu, Neslihan
Kauffman, Louis H.
Pongtanapaisan, Puttipong
Keywords: Knotoids
Spatial graphs
Virtual knots
Yamada polynomial
Publisher: Birkhauser
Abstract: To study knotted graphs with open ends arising in proteins, we introduce virtual graphoids, which are virtual spatial graph diagrams with two distinguished degree-one vertices modulo graph Reidemeister moves applied away from the distinguished vertices. Generalizing previously known results, we give topological interpretations of graphoids. By analyzing the Yamada polynomial, we provide bounds for the crossing numbers. As an application, we can produce nontrivial graphoids by verifying that they satisfy adequacy conditions in the same spirit as Lickorish and Thistlethwaite’s notion of adequate links. © 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.
Description: Article; Early Access
ISSN: 0001-9054
Appears in Collections:Scopus İndeksli Yayınlar Koleksiyonu / Scopus Indexed Publications Collection
WoS İndeksli Yayınlar Koleksiyonu / WoS Indexed Publications Collection

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