Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://hdl.handle.net/11147/11590
Title: Desalination: From ancient to present and future
Authors: Angelakis, Andreas N.
Valipour, Mohammad
Choo, Kwang-Ho
Ahmed, Abdelkader T.
Baba, Alper
Kumar, Rohitashw
Toor, Gurpal S.
Keywords: Distillation
Evaporation
Persian Gulf
Reverse osmosis
Seawater
Brackish water
Publisher: MDPI
Abstract: Water is life, and without water, there would be no civilizations and a vacant Earth. Water is considered an abundant natural resource on the earth. Water covers 3/4 of the surface. However, 97% of the available water on the earth is salty oceanic water, and only a tiny fraction (3%) is freshwater. This small portion of the available water supplies the needs of humans and animals. However, freshwater exists in underground, rivers, and lakes and is insufficient to cover all the world's water demands. Thus, water saving, water reuse, rainwater harvesting, stormwater utilization, and desalination are critical for maintaining water supplies for the future of humanity. Desalination has a long history spanning centuries from ancient times to the present. In the last two decades, desalination has been rapidly expanding to meet water needs in stressed water regions of the world. Yet, there are still some problems with its implementation in several areas of the world. This review provides a comprehensive assessment of the history of desalination for wiser and smarter water extraction and uses to sustain and support the water needs of the earth's inhabitants.
URI: https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162222
https://hdl.handle.net/11147/11590
ISSN: 2073-4441
Appears in Collections:Civil Engineering / İnşaat Mühendisliği
IZTECH Research Centers Collection / İYTE Araştırma Merkezleri Koleksiyonu
Scopus İndeksli Yayınlar Koleksiyonu / Scopus Indexed Publications Collection
WoS İndeksli Yayınlar Koleksiyonu / WoS Indexed Publications Collection

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