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Title: Groundwater resources and quality in Syria
Authors: Baba, Alper
Karem, Ruwad AL.
Yazdani, Hamidreza
Keywords: Groundwater quality
Water resources
Chemical weapons
Issue Date: 2021
Publisher: Elsevier
Abstract: The resources of groundwater and its pollution in Syria are identified, and pathways of contaminants to groundwater are described. Then, suggestions for improvement of groundwater quality in Syria are evaluated. Syria is located in a region where water scarcity is dominant. About 87% of all water in Syria is mainly used for irrigation, with almost 60% of this water taken from groundwater resources. The rest is used for domestic and industrial purposes, which account for 9% and 4%, respectively. Due to over-pumping and the increase in the number of unsustainable wells observed in recent decades, groundwater is quantitatively deteriorating. In general, sources of groundwater contamination fall into two main categories: natural and anthropogenic sources. Important sources of natural groundwater pollution include climate effects. About 43% of groundwater has a high concentration of SO4 and/or NaCl. This is specifically dominant in the eastern region of Syria due to the harsh environment where precipitation is relatively low, and evaporation is high. One of the major sources of anthropogenic groundwater contamination is civil war. Most of the damaged regions are located on permeable rocks, which increases the probability of groundwater contamination due to chemical weapons (CW) used. It is vital to manage and control groundwater resources well. With the increase in water contamination and with the absence of poor water management, access to drinking water will be more of a problem than it is now.
ISSN: 2352-801X
Appears in Collections:Civil Engineering / İnşaat Mühendisliği
Scopus İndeksli Yayınlar Koleksiyonu / Scopus Indexed Publications Collection
WoS İndeksli Yayınlar Koleksiyonu / WoS Indexed Publications Collection

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