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Title: Lime mortar technology in ancient eastern Roman provinces
Authors: Uğurlu Sağın, Elif
Duran, Hasan Engin
Böke, Hasan
Keywords: Lime mortar
Natural pozzolan
Multivariate analysis
Publisher: Elsevier
Abstract: Natural pozzolanic aggregates were discovered during the Roman era and have been widely used in hydraulic mortar production. Despite the claims of ancient treatises, the properties of pozzolans and the technology of hydraulic lime mortars were well known and applied in the eastern provinces of the Roman Empire. In this study, the characteristics of lime mortar at the ancient sites of Aigai and Nysa located in Western Anatolia were investigated to elicit the technology applied. The raw material compositions of the mortars, the hydraulic properties of the binders, and the mineralogical and chemical compositions of the natural pozzolans used were determined via X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The major and trace element compositions of the natural pozzolans were evaluated via multivariate statistical analysis to determine whether the same local raw material resources were used in their manufacture. The analytical results indicated that the Roman mortars were hydraulic, stiff, and durable materials due to the use of natural pozzolanic aggregates mostly comprising dacite. Although the aggregates had similar mineralogical compositions, multivariate statistical analysis revealed that their chemical compositions were clearly distinguishable, indicating the use of different sources of raw materials. Thus, it was inferred that similar pozzolan resources were known and deliberately used to produce hydraulic mortars in the eastern ancient Roman provinces.
ISSN: 2352-409X
Appears in Collections:City and Regional Planning / Şehir ve Bölge Planlama
Conservation and Restoration of Cultural Heritage / Kültür Varlıklarını Koruma ve Onarım
Scopus İndeksli Yayınlar Koleksiyonu / Scopus Indexed Publications Collection
WoS İndeksli Yayınlar Koleksiyonu / WoS Indexed Publications Collection

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