Bone marrow stem cells adapt to low-magnitude vibrations by altering their cytoskeleton during quiescence and osteogenesis
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Application of mechanical vibrations is anabolic to bone tissue, not only by guiding mature bone cells to increased formation, but also by increasing the osteogenic commitment of progenitor cells. However, the sensitivity and adaptive response of bone marrow stem cells to this loading regimen has not yet been identified. In this study, we subjected mouse bone marrow stem cell line D1-ORL-UVA to daily mechanical vibrations (0.15 g, 90 Hz, 15 min/day) for 7 days, both during quiescence and osteogenic commitment, to identify corresponding ultrastructural adaptations on cellular and molecular levels. During quiescence, mechanical vibrations significantly increased total actin content and actin fiber thickness, as measured by phalloidin staining and fluorescent microscopy. Cellular height also increased, as measured by atomic force microscopy, along with the expression of focal adhesion kinase (PTK2) mRNA levels. During osteogenesis, mechanical vibrations increased the total actin content, actin fiber thickness, and cytoplasmic membrane roughness, with significant increase in Runx2 mRNA levels. These results show that bone marrow stem cells demonstrate similar cytoskeletal adaptations to low-magnitude high-frequency mechanical loads both during quiescence and osteogenesis, potentially becoming more sensitive to additional loads by increased structural stiffness.