Stem cell culture under simulated microgravity
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Challenging environment of space causes several pivotal alterations in living systems, especially due to microgravity. The possibility of simulating microgravity by ground-based systems provides research opportunities that may lead to the understanding of in vitro biological effects of microgravity by eliminating the challenges inherent to spaceflight experiments. Stem cells are one of the most prominent cell types, due to their self-renewal and differentiation capabilities. Research on stem cells under simulated microgravity has generated many important findings, enlightening the impact of microgravity on molecular and cellular processes of stem cells with varying potencies. Simulation techniques including clinostat, random positioning machine, rotating wall vessel and magnetic levitation-based systems have improved our knowledge on the effects of microgravity on morphology, migration, proliferation and differentiation of stem cells. Clarification of the mechanisms underlying such changes offers exciting potential for various applications such as identification of putative therapeutic targets to modulate stem cell function and stem cell based regenerative medicine. © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020.