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Liquefaction of waste hazelnut shell by using sub- and supercritical solvents as a reaction medium
Direct thermochemical biomass degradation to obtain bio-oil by using organic solvents is not a new process type, and it has some advantages over hydrothermal liquefaction technique. However, up to our best knowledge, in this study, hazelnut shell decomposition by using ethanol, acetone and their mixtures at sub/supercritical conditions was studied for the first time in literature. Experiments were carried out between 220-300 degrees C, at three different reaction times (30, 60 and 90 min) for five different solvent ratios. Highest solid conversion achieved at 300 degrees C by using pure ethanol was 64.2%, whereas highest bio-oil yield was found as 44.2% at 300 degrees C with 50/50 (EtOH/Ac: v/v). Ethanol and acetone showed different characteristics during the reactions and their effects on the conversion and bio-oil yield were discussed. Statistical analysis showed that time, temperature, ratio and synergy between temperature-time were affecting parameters for the conversion and bio-oil yield. (C) 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.