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The multi-level policy learning of environmental policy: insights from Izmir
A European Union (EU) membership perspective is important for Turkey's harmonization with EU standards, which could have positive outcomes especially in the area of smart environmental management. However, as recent political developments suggest, Turkey is losing hope of full EU membership, and is searching for alternatives, such as privileged partnership. Active contributions of city-level good practices are urgently needed. Policy learning is a part of this process, and an emergent result of ever-changing negotiations involving a multiplicity of actors at the multi-level perspective (MLP). The present study investigates the glocal environmental policy of Izmir, via a review of recent governmental environmentally sensitive local innovative practices. The findings reveal that innovative environments that increase learning-by-doing and learning-by-using will become critical for environmental policy learning in Izmir and perhaps beyond.