Use of FTIR and UV-visible spectroscopy in determination of chemical characteristics of olive oils
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It was aimed to predict fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE), wax, diacylglycerol (DAG) and color pigment contents of olive oils by using rapid and non-destructive spectroscopic techniques (FTIR and UV-vis) individually and in combination. Prediction models were constructed by using partial least squares (PLS) regression with cross and external validation. FAEEs were estimated best with FTIR + UV-Vis spectroscopy (R-cv.(2) = 0.84, R-pred(2) = 0.90, and RPD = 3.0). PLS model with R-cv.(2) = 0.79, R-pred(2) = 0.71, and RPD = 1.9 was obtained for the estimation of 1,2 DAG using FTIR spectral data. Major pigments, lutein, pheophytin a and their derivatives and total xanthophylls were quantified successfully by FTIR + UV-Vis with a range of R-cv.(2) of 0.71-0.85, R-pred(2) of 0.70-0.84, and RPD = 1.5-2.5 values but the prediction of the rest of the pigments were poor (R-cv(2) = 0.60-0.76, R-pred(2) = 0.42-0.62, and RPD = 1.2-1.5). Combination of two spectral data resulted in average prediction of wax content of oils (R-cal(2) = 0.95, R-pred(2) = 0.75, and RPD = 1.9). FTIR and UV-vis spectroscopic techniques in combination with PLS regression provided promising results for the prediction of several chemical parameters of olive oils; therefore, they could be alternatives to traditional analysis methods.