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Thermal fluid circulation around the Karliova triple junction: Geochemical features and volcano-tectonic implications (Eastern Turkey)
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The Karliova triple junction (KTJ) in eastern Turkey has been subjected to incremental deformation resulting in complex kinematic and mechanical interactions throughout the upper crust. These interactions have generated tectonic inversions and uplift, extensive seismicity and volcanism. The regional tectonics generate local stresses, some of which are favorable to magma transport and thermal water circulation throughout the lithosphere. Here we evalauate hydrogeochemical, geological and numerical results relating to the mechanism of thermal fluid circulation around the KTJ. Hydrogeochemistry of the samples indicates that the thermal water springs are probably heated by steam. Volcanic rocks at the site appear to be the host rock owing to the enrichment of Na+ and Cl- ions in water and the abundance of these elements in minerals of the volcanic rocks. In addition, it is clear that the thermal fluids are sourced from depth and migrate through permeable networks of faults. The effects of crustal heterogeneities, in particular the geometry and mechanical properties of many faults and layers, on thermal fluid circulation in relation to active magma chambers were investigated under a variety of different mechanical conditions. The numerical results indicate very close relationships between the stress field causing faulting and thermal fluid movement in the KTJ. The effect of thermal transfer was modeled with depth throughout the crust and along the the crustal surface. The models show that some faults encourage thermal fluid circulation below the Varto and Ozenc volcanoes. Hydrogeochemical, geological and numerical results suggest that magmas residing beneath both the Varto caldera and the Ozenc volcano are the main heat source for thermal fluid in the Varto region. Fluid-solid interactions and fluid circulation models show that the permeable faults are important factors affecting heat transport and fluid circulation. In a series of thermal fluid flow models we probe the mechanism for fluid and gas transport from the 900 degrees C 'hot' zone around the deep magma chambers and investigate how heat is lost throughout the crust on the way to the surface and so eventually creates water channels of temperatures between 50 to 60 degrees C.