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Mini-Review: "Ball-Type Phthalocyanines": Similarities and Differences from Mono Phthalocyanines
Ball-type phthalocyanines are recently synthesized binuclear derivatives of the widely known phthalocyanine molecule. In the ball-type Pc molecule, two cofacially arranged Pc rings have four bridged substituents on the peripheral positions of benzenes. Due to their cofacially arranged phthalocyanine rings and, strong intramolecular and intermolecular interactions, ball-type phthalocyanines have different properties than their parent molecule and these structures have many potential application areas. This review describes three different synthesis methods of ball-type phthalocyanines; synthesis in the solvent, synthesis in solid, and synthesis under microwave irradiation. The synthesis that occurs in the shortest time with the highest yield is the synthesis in the solid phase. General differences between a ball-type phthalocyanine and a monophthalocyanine, such as differences in electronic spectra and effects of cofacial arrangement and central metal atoms, are also discussed. The shape of the Q-bands indicates the differences in electronic spectra. In ball-type Pcs, the Q-bands are broad and have poor resolution. Some potential applications, such as gas sensors, NLO devices, potential usage in photodynamic therapy and artificial photosynthesis of ball-type phthalocyanines are also mentioned. Ball-type Pcs can be used as a sensor for gases such as; CO2, CO, SO2, VOC. A novel water-soluble ball-type Pc may have potential application in PDT. Finally, we consider future prospects of these molecules.