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Thin film microextraction: Towards faster and more sensitive microextraction
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Thin film microextraction (TFME) is an analytical tool that has been proven to be suitable for integrated sampling and sample preparation of a wide variety of routine and on-site applications. Compared to the traditional microextraction techniques, the most important advantage of TFME is its enhanced sensitivity due to the relatively larger extractive phase spread over a larger surface area. The technique, in this way, facilitates fast extraction kinetics and high extractive capacity. Moreover, TFME offers high versatility for device development over classical SPME technologies due to the plethora of available extractive phases, coating methods and geometry options. The goal of this review is to provide a comprehensive summary of the contemporary advances in this exciting field covering novel extractive phases, technological and methodological developments, and relevant cutting-edge applications. Finally, a critical discussion of the future trends on TFME is also presented. (C) 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.