Realtime Access Map
Naturally occurring arsenic in geothermal systems in Turkey
Human beings have been benefiting from geothermal energy for different uses since the dawn of the civilization in many parts of the world. One of the earliest uses of geothermal energy was for heating and was used extensively by Romans in Turkey, where is an area of complex geology with active tectonics and high geothermal potential. The highest concentrations of naturally occurring aqueous arsenic (As) are found in certain types of geothermal waters, which are generally related to faults and alteration zone. The especially volcanic activity led to the delineation of wide-ranging areas of alteration within mineral assemblages, from advanced argillic type to silica type to prophylitic type at deep levels. The advanced argillic alteration zones are typified by enrichment of sulfur in volcanic rocks that have been dominant in the geological formation of Turkey and the primary mechanism for the presence of numerous trace elements in earth's crust, including but not limited to arsenic. Also, secondary epithermal gypsum has a high concentration of As in the form of realgar and orpiment along the fracture zones of metamorphic and carbonate aquifers. The temperature of geothermal fluid ranges from 40 to 295 degrees C in Turkey. The high arsenic concentrations in geothermal resources have been detected in different part of Turkey from 1 to 6000 mu g L-1 in geothermal fluids.