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Characterization of antimicrobial activities of olive phenolics on yeasts using conventional methods and mid-infrared spectroscopy
Olive fruit is very rich in terms of phenolic compounds. Antimicrobial activities of various phenolic compounds against bacteria and fungi are well established; however, their effects on yeasts have not been examined. Aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial effects induced by olive phenolic compounds, including tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein, luteolin and apigenin against two yeast species, Aureobasidium pullulans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. For this purpose, yeasts were treated with various concentrations (12.5-1000ppm) of phenolic compounds and reduction in yeast population was followed with optical density measurements with microplate reader, yeast colony forming units and mid-infrared spectroscopy. All phenolic compounds were effective on both yeasts, especially 200ppm and higher concentrations have significant antimicrobial activity; however, effects of lower levels depend on the type of phenolic compound. According to mid-infrared spectral data, significant changes were observed in 1200-900cm(-1) range corresponding to carbohydrates of yeast structure as a result of exposure to all phenolic compounds except tyrosol. Spectra of tyrosol and luteolin treated yeasts also showed changes in 1750-1500cm(-1) related to amide section and 3600-3000cm(-1) fatty acid region. Since phenolic compounds from olives were effective against yeasts, they could be used in food applications where yeast growth showed problem. In addition, FTIR spectroscopy could be successfully used to monitor and characterize antimicrobial activity of phenolic compounds on yeasts as complementary to conventional microbiological methods.