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Mid-infrared spectroscopic detection of sunflower oil adulteration with safflower oil
The oil industry is in need of rapid analysis techniques to differentiate mixtures of safflower-sunflower oils from pure oils. The current adulteration detection methods are generally cumbersome and detection limits are questionable. The aim of this study was to test the capability of a mid-infrared spectroscopic method to detect the adulteration of sunflower oil with safflower oil compared to fatty acid analysis. Mid-infrared spectra of pure oils and their mixtures at the 10-60% range were obtained at 4000-650 cm(-1) wavenumber and fatty acid profiles were determined. Data were analyzed by multivariate statistical analysis techniques. The lowest level of detection was obtained with mid-infrared spectroscopy at 30% while the fatty acid profile could determine adulteration at around 60%. Adulteration levels were predicted successfully using PLS regression analysis of infrared data with R-2 (calibration) = 0.96 and R-2 (validation) = 0.93. As a rapid and minimum waste generating technique, mid-infrared spectroscopy could be a useful tool for the screening of raw material to detect safflower-sunflower oil mixtures.