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Effect of defects and secondary phases in Cu2ZnSnS4 absorber material on the performance of Zn(O,S) buffered devices
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Copper zinc fin sulfide (CZTS) absorber layer attracts so much attention in photovoltaic industry since it contains earth abundant, low cost and non-toxic elements contrary to other chalcogenide based solar cells. In the present work, CZTS absorber layers were prepared following a two-stage process: firstly, a stack of metal precursors (Copper (Cu)/Tin (Sn)/Zinc (Zn)/Copper (Cu)) were deposited on molybdenum (Mo) substrate by magnetron sputtering, then this stack was annealed under S atmosphere inside a tubular furnace. CZTS thin films were investigated using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The effect of sulfurization time and the thickness of top and bottom Cu layer in precursors on the properties of CZTS thin films were investigated. The importance of Cu thickness adjacent to Sn to avoid detrimental phases was addressed. The significance of sulfurization time to restrict the Sn and Zn losses, formation of oxides such as fin dioxide and zinc oxide, and formation of molybdenum disulfide and voids between Mo/CZTS interface was also addressed. Moreover, cadmium sulfide buffer layer, which is conventionally used in CZTS solar cells, is replaced by an environmentally friendly alternative zinc oxysulfide buffer layer.