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Single-Layer Janus-Type Platinum Dichalcogenides and Their Heterostructures
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Ultrathin two-dimensional Janus-type platinum dichalcogenide crystals formed by two different atoms at opposite surfaces are investigated by performing state-of-the-art density functional theory calculations. First, it is shown that single-layer PtX2 structures (where X = S, Se, or Te) crystallize into the dynamically stable IT phase and are indirect band gap semiconductors. It is also found that the substitutional chalcogen doping in all PtX2 structures is favorable via replacement of surface atoms with a smaller chalcogen atom, and such a process leads to the formation of Janus-type platinum dichalcogenides (XPtY, where X and Y stand for S, Se, or Te) which are novel single-layer crystals. While all Janus structures are indirect band gap semiconductors as their binary analogues, their Raman spectra show distinctive features that stem from the broken out-of-plane symmetry. In addition, it is revealed that the construction of Janus crystals enhances the piezoelectric constants of PtX2 crystals significantly both in the in plane and in the out-of-plane directions. Moreover, it is shown that vertically stacked van der Waals heterostructures of binary and ternary (Janus) platinum dichalcogenides offer a wide range of electronic features by forming bilayer heterojunctions of type-I, type-II, and type-III, respectively. Our findings reveal that Janus-type ultrathin platinum dichalcogenide crystals are quite promising materials for optoelectronic device applications.