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Ethyl esters biodiesel production from Spirulina sp. and Nannochloropsis oculata microalgal lipids over alumina-calcium oxide catalyst
In this study, we present the ethyl esters biodiesel production from Nannochloropsis oculata and Spirulina sp. microalgal lipids on 60 wt% CaO on Al2O3 catalyst at 50 degrees C and 1.0 atm. The activity of the catalyst was studied as a function of ethanol:lipid molar ratios, catalyst amounts and reaction times. It was found that 6 wt% of the lipids as catalyst amount resulted in 59% biodiesel yield in 30 min at 12 of ethanol:lipid molar ratio whereas 90-99% biodiesel yield was obtained at 24 and 48 of ethanol:lipid molar ratios. In order to achieve 90-99% yields, the basic strength was found to be weak and to be in the form of bi-carbonate, whereas high basicity was not necessary. Besides, pure CaO and Al2O3 were not active under the same reaction conditions. We found that the glycerolysis of triacylglyceride occurred in series with the reverse of the transesterification of the triacylglyceride when the catalyst amount was 6 wt% of the lipids and the ethanol:lipid molar ratio was 24 and 48 and the reaction time was 60 min. (C) 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.