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Fish scale/poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) nanofibrous composite scaffolds for bone regeneration
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The aim of this study was to produce three-dimensional, nanofibrous fish scale/poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) composite scaffolds as bone filling materials. This is the first report wherein fish scales were used within a nanofibrous matrix for bone regeneration. Composite scaffolds with a cotton wool-like structure (fiber diameter: 560 +/- 64 nm; porosity: 82%) were obtained by incorporating chopped fish scales into wet-electrospun poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) nanofibers and freeze-drying. The addition of the fish scales improved the mechanical properties, biomineralization tendency, cell viability, alkaline phosphatase activity, and type I collagen production. Consequently, produced composite scaffolds would be regarded to have the therapeutic capacity in bone tissue damages.