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Effect of Aggregate Microtexture Losses on Skid Resistance: Laboratory-Based Assessment on Chip Seals
Skid resistance has long been recognized as one of the most important pavement surface characteristics for safer roads. Evaluation of skid resistance of pavement is crucial but it is not an easy task. Moreover, it depends on numerous parameters such as pavement type, materials and tire properties, and environmental conditions. Aggregate texture changes significantly according to its origin and affects the skid resistance performance of the road surfaces. In the current study, chip seal samples were produced with different aggregate types at different polishing levels to evaluate the effect of aggregate microtexture on skid resistance performance. The Micro-Deval (MD) test device was utilized to obtain polished aggregates. Different polishing levels were provided by distinct revolutions of the MD drum. To monitor the change in aggregate surface with the polishing process, aggregates were monitored by scanning electron and optical microscopes at each level. Mean texture depths (MTDs) of chip seals were determined with outflow meter test. On the other hand, dynamic friction tester (DFT) and British pendulum tester (BPT) were implemented for assessment of skid resistance according to the relevant ASTM standards. Skid resistance and texture measurements were further used to identify the International Friction Index (IFI) for each sample. In addition, a correlational analysis was conducted between DFT and BPT results, and variable relationships were set for different speeds. Consequently, better skid resistance values were observed for chip seals produced by slags than the ones with natural aggregates at each polishing level. After fulfilling the economic and environmental requirements, using metallurgical by-products is recommended for long-lasting skid-resistant pavement surfaces. Additionally, it can be concluded that MD apparatus may be considered an easier, more cost-effective, and faster way to assess the polishing resistance of aggregates.