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Indoor air partitioning of Synthetic Musk Compounds: Gas, particulate matter, house dust, and window film
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Due to diversity of contaminants indoors and complexity in the physical structure of particulate matter, partition process of chemicals affects indoor concentration distribution. Synthetic Musk Compounds (SMCs) are ubiquitously found in household and personal care products, thus, in the environment. Exposure to SMCs is important for human health, therefore, their partitioning in indoor environmental media is a key issue. In this study, gas particle, house dust, andwindowfilm partitioning of SMCs were investigated in an indoor micro-environment. In a sealed and unoccupied room, a polycyclic and nitro musk mixture was left for volatilization for an hour. Then, samples were collected using XAD-2 sandwiched between two PUF plugs, glass-fiber filter, and wipes for gas, PM10, window-film, house dust phases, respectively, for 145 h. Collected samples were analyzed using a GC-MS. Results demonstrated that MC concentrations decreased over time, non-linearly. Six of the SMCs partitioned to PM10 with at least 10% at beginning of the experiment, whereas the number of compounds dropped to two at the end, showing that SMCs may partition well between the two phases but they tend to be in the gas phase. They were also detected in the film and dust phases but a decrease pattern similar to gas-particle was not observed. Spearman correlations indicate that the dust and film-associated concentrations were governed by similar processes but PM-associated concentrations were not. SMCs may be found in all phases, mainly in house dust in terms of mass among the studied media and unaccounted surface reservoirs. Therefore, their partitioning between indoor media has key implications for human exposure. (C)20 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.