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Synthesis of butyl glucoside over sulphated Zr-SBA-15 and tungstophosphoric acid incorporated SBA-15 catalysts
Glycosidation of glucose with n-butanol was studied over sulphated Zr incorporated SBA-15 and tungstophosphoric acid (TPA) incorporated SBA-15 catalysts. The catalysts were prepared with different Zr, TPA and SO4 amounts via hydrothermal synthesis. SBA-15 structure was preserved and Zr and TPA were successfully incorporated. Sulphation improved the acidity of Zr-SBA-15 and the ratio of Brønsted to Lewis acid sites (B/L) increased. Thus, much higher butyl glucoside yields (about 70 %) were obtained over SO4/Zr-SBA-15 catalysts. However, 15 % activity loss was observed after 2 re-use due to sulphate leaching. TPA-SBA-15 catalysts had the highest B/L and provided very high catalytic activity with butyl glucoside yields above 95 %. The initial rate of butyl glucoside formation over TPA-SBA-15 catalysts were close to that of H2SO4. These catalysts were found stable and reusable. Reaction temperature and catalysts amount was studied as the reaction parameters over the most active and selective catalyst. © 2020 Elsevier B.V.