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dc.contributor.authorAngelakis A.N.
dc.contributor.authorZaccaria D.
dc.contributor.authorKrasilnikoff J.
dc.contributor.authorSalgot M.
dc.contributor.authorBazza M.
dc.contributor.authorRoccaro P.
dc.contributor.authorFereres E.
dc.date.accessioned2020-07-18T03:35:11Z
dc.date.available2020-07-18T03:35:11Z
dc.date.issued2020
dc.identifier.issn20734441
dc.identifier.urihttps://doi.org/10.3390/W12051285
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/11147/7815
dc.description.abstractMany agricultural production areas worldwide are characterized by high variability of water supply conditions, or simply lack of water, creating a dependence on irrigation since Neolithic times. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the evolution of irrigation of agricultural lands worldwide, based on bibliographical research focusing on ancient water management techniques and ingenious irrigation practices and their associated land management practices. In ancient Egypt, regular flooding by the Nile River meant that early agriculture probably consisted of planting seeds in soils that had been recently covered and fertilized with floodwater and silt deposits. On the other hand, in arid and semi-arid regions farmers made use of perennial springs and seasonal runoff under circumstances altogether different from the river civilizations of Mesopotamia, Egypt, India, and early dynasties in China. We review irrigation practices in all major irrigation regions through the centuries. Emphasis is given to the Bronze Age civilizations (Minoans, Egyptians, and Indus valley), pre-Columbian, civilizations from the historic times (e.g., Chinese, Hellenic, and Roman), late-Columbians (e.g., Aztecs and Incas) and Byzantines, as well as to Ottomans and Arabs. The implications and impacts of irrigation techniques on modern management of water resources, as well as on irrigated agriculture, are also considered and discussed. Finally, some current major agricultural water management challenges are outlined, concluding that ancient practices could be adapted to cope with present challenges in irrigated agriculture for increasing productivity and sustainability. © 2020 by the authors.en_US
dc.language.isoengen_US
dc.publisherMDPI AGen_US
dc.relation.isversionof10.3390/W12051285en_US
dc.rightsinfo:eu-repo/semantics/openAccessen_US
dc.subjectAztecsen_US
dc.subjectBronze ageen_US
dc.subjectByzantine timesen_US
dc.subjectChinese dynastiesen_US
dc.subjectEgyptiansen_US
dc.subjectHarappansen_US
dc.subjectHellenic civilizationsen_US
dc.subjectIncasen_US
dc.subjectIrrigation practicesen_US
dc.subjectMayasen_US
dc.subjectMedieval timesen_US
dc.subjectMesopotamiaen_US
dc.subjectMinoansen_US
dc.subjectModern timesen_US
dc.subjectOttoman timesen_US
dc.subjectRomansen_US
dc.titleIrrigation of world agricultural lands: Evolution through the Millenniaen_US
dc.typereviewen_US
dc.contributor.institutionauthor
dc.relation.journalWater (Switzerland)en_US
dc.contributor.departmentIzmir Institute of Technologyen_US
dc.identifier.volume12en_US
dc.identifier.issue5en_US
dc.relation.publicationcategoryDiğeren_US
dc.cont.department-tempAngelakis, A.N., HAO-Demeter, Agricultural Research Institution of Crete, Iraklion and Union of Hellenic Water Supply and Sewerage Operators, Larissa, 41222, Greece; Zaccaria, D., Department of Land, Air, and Water Resources, University of California, California, CA 95064, United States; Krasilnikoff, J., School of Culture and Society, Department of History and Classical Studies, Aarhus University, Aarhus, 8000, Denmark; Salgot, M., Soil Science Unit, Facultat de Farmàcia, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, 08007, Spain; Bazza, M., Formerly at Land and Water Division, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations-FAO, Rome, 00153, Italy; Roccaro, P., Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Catania, Catania, 2 I-95131, Italy; Jimenez, B., The Comisión Nacional del Agua in Mexico City, Del. Coyoacán, México, 04340, Mexico; Kumar, A., Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, 110016, India; Yinghua, W., Department ofWater Conservancy History, China Institute ofWater Resources and Hydropower Research, Beijing, 100048, China; Baba, A., Izmir Institute of Technology, Engineering Faculty, Department of Civil Engineering, Urla/Izmir, 35430, Turkey; Harrison, J.A., Independent Scholar, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, LA 70802, United States; Garduno-Jimenez, A., FoodWater Waste Research Group, The University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG72RD, United Kingdom; Fereres, E., IAS-CSIC, University of Cordoba, Córdoba, 14004, Spainen_US


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