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Control of lactic acid bacteria in fermented beverages using lysozyme and nisin: test of traditional beverage boza as a model food system
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The objective of this study was to increase quality and limited shelf-life of boza (3–15 days), a traditional Balkan origin fermented beverage using lysozyme (LYS) and/or nisin (NIS). For this purpose, the effectiveness of NIS, LYS and LYS:NIS combinations was first tested in a broth medium at 4 °C for 3 weeks on Lactobacillus plantarum, one of the frequently isolated lactic acid bacteria in boza. Stability of LYS and NIS in boza, their effects on LAB counts, and chemical and sensory properties of boza were then evaluated during cold storage at 4 °C. Results of LAB counts as well as pH, d- and l-lactic acid, and titratable acidity measurements showed that LAB in boza containing NIS (250 μg g−1) or LYS:NIS (500:250 μg g−1) could be controlled without reducing LAB counts below 6 log CFU mL−1 during 2 weeks shelf-life. In contrast, LYS (500 μg g−1) alone could not control LAB in boza to delay its acidic spoilage. Positive effects of NIS and LYS:NIS application on quality of boza were also proved with sensory analysis by panelists and e-nose measurements. This work showed that use of natural GRAS agents in preservation of fermented beverages containing probiotic LAB is possible without affecting their characteristic aroma and flavour.