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Influence of sulfurization temperature on Cu2ZnSnS4 absorber layer on flexible titanium substrates for thin film solar cells
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In this study, the effect of sulfurization temperature on the morphology, composition and structure of Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films grown on titanium (Ti) substrates has been investigated. Since Ti foils are flexible, they were preferred as a substrate. As a result of their flexibility, they allow large area manufacturing and roll-to-roll processes. To understand the effects of sulfurization temperature on the CZTS formation on Ti foils, CZTS films fabricated with various sulfurization temperatures were investigated with several analyses including x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman scattering. XRD measurements showed a sharp and intense peak coming from the (112) planes of the kesterite type lattice structure (KS), which is strong evidence for good crystallinity. The surface morphologies of our thin films were investigated using SEM. Electron dispersive spectroscopy was also used for the compositional analysis of the thin films. According to these analysis, it is observed that Ti foils were suitable as substrates for the growth of CZTS thin films with desired properties and the sulfurization temperature plays a crucial role for producing good quality CZTS thin films on Ti foil substrates.