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Arsenic in groundwater in Western Anatolia, Turkey: a review
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Occurrence of arsenic (As) in groundwater has been a major problem worldwide for the last hundred years. Considering its toxic effects on human health, the presence of elevated levels of arsenic in groundwater resources used in drinking water supply has been an active research field throughout the world (Van Halem et al., 2009). In this regard, case studies from Bangla-desh, India, Nepal, El Salvador, Ecuador, Honduras, Mexico, Chile, China, Canada, Argentina, Peru, Taiwan, United States, Bolivia and Turkey have been documented with regards to the detection of natural levels in groundwater, the occurrence and distribution mechanisms, the human health effects and the in-situ and ex-situ treatment techniques (Jean et al., 2010). In many of these locations, arsenic is naturally found in the subsurface strata within volcanic and sedimentary formations as well as in areas of geothermal systems related to tectonic activity. Western Anatolia in Turkey is one such area of complex geology with active tectonics and high geothermal potential. This natural setting serves as a suitable environment for the presence of high levels of arsenic in subsurface waters. Based on these fundamentals, this study presents a general overview of arsenic presence in western Anatolia.