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The varying densification strain in a multi-layer aluminum corrugate structure: Direct impact testing and layer-wise numerical modelling
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An aluminum (1050 H14) multi-layer corrugated structure composed of brazed 16 trapezoidal zig-zig fin layers was direct impact tested above the critical velocities for shock formation using a modified Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar. The experimentally measured stress-time histories of the cylindrical test samples in the direct impact tests were verified with the simulations implemented in the explicit finite element code of LS–DYNA. The quasi-static experimental and simulation deformation of the corrugated samples proceeded with the discrete, non-contiguous bands of crushed fin layers, while the dynamic crushing started from the proximal impact end and proceeded with a sequential and in-planar manner, showing shock type deformation characteristic. The experimental and numerical crushing stresses and the numerically determined densification strains of the fin layers increased with increasing impact velocity above the critical velocities. When the numerically determined densification strain at a specific velocity above the critical velocities was incorporated, the rigid-perfectly-plastic-locking idealized model resulted in peak stresses similar to the experimental and simulation mean crushing stresses. However, the model underestimated the experimental and simulation peak stresses below 200 m s−1. It was proposed, while the micro inertial effects were responsible for the increase of the crushing stresses at and below subcritical velocities, the shock deformation became dominant above the critical velocities.