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Nanoribbons: From fundamentals to state-of-the-art applications
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Atomically thin nanoribbons (NRs) have been at the forefront of materials science and nanoelectronics in recent years. State-of-the-art research on nanoscale materials has revealed that electronic, magnetic, phononic, and optical properties may differ dramatically when their one-dimensional forms are synthesized. The present article aims to review the recent advances in synthesis techniques and theoretical studies on NRs. The structure of the review is organized as follows: After a brief introduction to low dimensional materials, we review different experimental techniques for the synthesis of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) with their advantages and disadvantages. In addition, theoretical investigations on width and edge-shape-dependent electronic and magnetic properties, functionalization effects, and quantum transport properties of GNRs are reviewed. We then devote time to the NRs of the transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) family. First, various synthesis techniques, E-field-tunable electronic and magnetic properties, and edge-dependent thermoelectric performance of NRs of MoS2 and WS2 are discussed. Then, strongly anisotropic properties, growth-dependent morphology, and the weakly width-dependent bandgap of ReS2 NRs are summarized. Next we discuss TMDs having a T-phase morphology such as TiSe2 and stable single layer NRs of mono-chalcogenides. Strong edge-type dependence on characteristics of GaS NRs, width-dependent Seebeck coefficient of SnSe NRs, and experimental analysis on the stability of ZnSe NRs are reviewed. We then focus on the most recently emerging NRs belonging to the class of transition metal trichalcogenides which provide ultra-high electron mobility and highly anisotropic quasi-1D properties. In addition, width-, edge-shape-, and functionalization-dependent electronic and mechanical properties of blackphosphorus, a monoatomic anisotropic material, and studies on NRs of group IV elements (silicene, germanene, and stanene) are reviewed. Observation of substrate-independent quantum well states, edge and width dependent properties, the topological phase of silicene NRs are reviewed. In addition, H2 concentration-dependent transport properties and anisotropic dielectric function of GeNRs and electric field and strain sensitive I-V characteristics of SnNRs are reviewed. We review both experimental and theoretical studies on the NRs of group III-V compounds. While defect and N-termination dependent conductance are highlighted for boron nitride NRs, aluminum nitride NRs are of importance due to their dangling bond, electric field, and strain dependent electronic and magnetic properties. Finally, superlattice structure of NRs of GaN/AlN, Si/Ge, G/BN, and MoS2/WS2 is reviewed.