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Monitoring of wine process and prediction of its parameters with mid-infrared spectroscopy
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It was aimed to predict the chemical (ethanol, glycerol, organic acids, titratable acidity, °Brix, sugars, total phenolic and anthocyanin content) and microbiological parameters of red, rose and white wines during their processing from must to bottling using mid-infrared (IR) spectroscopy in combination with one of the multivariate statistical analysis techniques, partial least square (PLS) regression. Various spectral filtering techniques were employed before PLS regression analysis of mid-IR data. The best results were obtained from the second-order derivation for the chemical parameters except for alcohols. PLS models developed for the prediction of some of the chemical parameters have R2 values greater than 0.9, with low root mean square error values; however, prediction of microbial population from mid-IR spectroscopy did not provide accurate results. IR spectroscopic and chemical–chromatographic data were also used to investigate the differences between processing steps, and principal component analysis allowed clear separation of the beginning of the process from the rest. Practical Applications: Monitoring of the wine process from must to final product is necessary for better control of the process and the quality. As a rapid and a minimum waste-producing technique, mid-IR spectroscopy in combination with chemometric methods could allow prediction of several chemical parameters simultaneously. Therefore, any problems that could be encountered during wine processing could be determined and interfered in a short time.