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Dilute-acid hydrolysis of apple, orange, apricot and peach pomaces as potential candidates for bioethanol production
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Chemical composition of four selected fruit pomaces (agro-industrial wastes) was evaluated. The effect of temperature, time, acid concentration and solid:liquid (S:L) ratio on dilute-acid hydrolysis of selected pomaces were investigated using 24 factorial and central composite design and optimum hydrolysis conditions were determined. A preliminary study was initiated using apple hydrolysate and the fungus Tricoderma harzianum in order to explore and demonstrate their potential uses in bioethanol production. Chemical composition of pomaces was promising as fermentation media. The highest reducing sugar yield from the optimization step was 31%, 49%, 56% and 52% for apple, apricot, orange and peach pomaces, respectively under optimum hydrolysis conditions. Neither furfural nor hydroxmethylfurfural (HMF) were detected in hydrolysates. The highest bioethanol production (1.67 g/L) was obtained in 6 days in a non-static incubator using Tricoderma harzianum pregrown in minimal medium. It was demonstrated that selected pomaces holds potential for bioethanol production and can be eliminated without being potential waste problem to the environment, with economical return. Although, this work is an initial study in showing the potential of these pomaces and T. harzianum in bioethanol production, an extensive study on the optimization of fermentation parameters is recommended for further increase of bioethanol production. Copyright © 2013 American Scientific Publishers All rights reserved.