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Atmospheric concentrations and phase partitioning of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Izmir, Turkey
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Ambient air polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) samples were collected at a suburban (n=63) and at an urban site (n=14) in Izmir, Turkey. Average gas-phase total PAH (∑ 14PAH) concentrations were 23.5ngm -3 for suburban and 109.7ngm -3 for urban sites while average particle-phase total PAH concentrations were 12.3 and 34.5ngm -3 for suburban and urban sites, respectively. Higher ambient PAH concentrations were measured in the gas-phase and ∑ 14PAH concentrations were dominated by lower molecular weight PAHs. Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that the meteorological parameters were effective on ambient PAH concentrations. Emission sources of particle-phase PAHs were investigated using a diagnostic plot of fluorene (FLN)/(fluorine+pyrene; PY) versus indeno[1,2,3-cd]PY/(indeno[1,2,3-cd]PY+benzo[g,h,i]perylene) and several diagnostic ratios. These approaches have indicated that traffic emissions (petroleum combustion) were the dominant PAH sources at both sites for summer and winter seasons. Experimental gas-particle partition coefficients (K P) were compared to the predictions of octanol-air (K OA) and soot-air (K SA) partition coefficient models. The correlations between experimental and modeled K P values were significant (r 2=0.79 and 0.94 for suburban and urban sites, respectively, p<0.01). Octanol-based absorptive partitioning model predicted lower partition coefficients especially for relatively volatile PAHs. However, overall there was a relatively good agreement between the measured K P and soot-based model predictions. Ambient air polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) samples were collected at a suburban and at an urban site in Izmir, Turkey. The multiple linear regression analysis indicated that the meteorological parameters were effective on the measured ambient PAH concentrations. The results indicated that traffic emissions were the dominant PAH sources at both sites for summer and winter seasons.