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Comparison of fatty acid profiles and mid-infrared spectral data for classification of olive oils
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The composition of olive oils may vary depending on environmental and technological factors. Fatty acid profiles and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy data in combination with chemometric methods were used to classify extra-virgin olive oils according to geographical origin and harvest year. Oils were obtained from 30 different areas of northern and southern parts of the Aegean Region of Turkey for two consecutive harvest years. Fatty acid composition data analyzed with principal component analysis was more successful in distinguishing northern olive oil samples from southern samples compared to spectral data. Both methods have the ability to differentiate olive oil samples with respect to harvest year. Partial least squares (PLS) analysis was also applied to detect a correlation between fatty acid profile and spectral data. Correlation coefficients (R2) of a calibration set for stearic, oleic, linoleic, arachidic and linolenic acids were determined as 0.83, 0.97, 0.97, 0.83 and 0.69, respectively. Fatty acid profiles were very effective in classification of oils with respect to geographic origin and harvest year. On the other hand, FT-IR spectra in combination with PLS could be a useful and rapid tool for the determination of some of the fatty acids of olive oils.