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Synergistic effect of natural zeolites on flame retardant additives
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The thermal degradation and flammability of intumescent fire-retardant polypropylene matrix composites consisting of ammonium polyphosphate (APP) as an acid source and blowing agent, pentaerythritol (PER) as a carbonisation agent and natural zeolite (clinoptilolite rich, Gördes II) as a synergistic agent were examined. APP and PER combinations were examined at different ratios (0.25, 0.33, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, and 4) for optimisation of the formulation for flame retardancy. The zeolite was incorporated into flame retardant formulation at four different concentrations (1, 2, 5, and 10 wt%) to investigate the synergism between the flame retardant materials. The thermal degradation and flammability of composites were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and by limiting oxygen index (LOI) measurement and horizontal burning (HB) tests. A synergistic effect in flame retardancy was observed when natural zeolites were used in combination with APP and PER.