Low magnitude high frequency vibrations expedite the osteogenesis of bone marrow stem cells on paper based 3D scaffolds
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Anabolic effects of low magnitude high frequency (LMHF) vibrations on bone tissue were consistently shown in the literature in vivo, however in vitro efforts to elucidate underlying mechanisms are generally limited to 2D cell culture studies. Three dimensional cell culture platforms better mimic the natural microenvironment and biological processes usually differ in 3D compared to 2D culture. In this study, we used laboratory grade filter paper as a scaffold material for studying the effects of LHMF vibrations on osteogenesis of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in a 3D system. LMHF vibrations were applied 15 min/day at 0.1 g acceleration and 90 Hz frequency for 21 days to residing cells under quiescent and osteogenic conditions. mRNA expression analysis was performed for alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin (OCN) genes, Alizarin red S staining was performed for mineral nodule formation and infrared spectroscopy was performed for determination of extracellular matrix composition. The highest osteocalcin expression, mineral nodule formation and the phosphate bands arising from the inorganic phase was observed for the cells incubated in osteogenic induction medium with vibration. Our results showed that filter paper can be used as a model scaffold system for studying the effects of mechanical loads on cells, and LMHF vibrations induced the osteogenic differentiation of stem cells.