Nonvisual aspects of spatial knowledge: Wayfinding behavior of blind persons in Lisbon
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Blind individuals' wayfinding performance in complex urban environments is a complex phenomenon. This study investigates the wayfinding strategies of congenitally blind individuals in an urban context. The aim of the study was to assess the extent to which the environmental auditory cues are of primary importance for their wayfinding strategies. The study was conducted in Lisbon, Portugal. Results suggest that auditory information was the most used environmental cue and that a feeling of enclosure is the most important environmental feature during wayfinding. These results corroborate previous findings suggesting that increased familiarity with the environment results in more efficient wayfinding strategies, and that lack of environmental auditory cues could be compensated by a robust cognitive map. The study highlights multidimensional sensory experiences of urban environments and nonvisual aspects of spatial perception.