Fine and coarse particulate matter, trace element content, and associated health risks considering respiratory deposition for Ergene Basin, Thrace
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Ergene Basin is located in Thrace, Turkey, where industries are densely populated. This study aimed to determine exposure of people living in Ergene Basin (Corlu and Cerkezkoy) to fine and coarse PM, and its potentially toxic element (PTE) content by considering variation in respiratory airway deposition rates with daily activities and PM particle size by employing deposition models of International Commission on Radiological Protection and Multiple Path Particle Dosimetry. Fine and coarse PM samples were collected daily for a year at points in Corlu and Cerkezkoy representing urban and industrial settings, respectively. A questionnaire survey was conducted in the study area to obtain time-activity budgets, and associated variation was included in the health risk assessment by considering time-activity-dependent inhalation rates. The studied PTEs were Al, As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Co, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Se. The mean fine and coarse PM concentrations were measured as 23 and 14 mu g/m(3) in Corlu, and 22 and 12 mu g/m(3) in Cerkezkoy, respectively. The only PTE that exceeded acceptable risk in terms of total carcinogenic risk was Cr. Non-carcinogenic risks of all the PTEs including Cr were below the threshold. The use of deposition fractions in the health risk assessment (HRA) calculations was found to prevent overestimation of health risks by at least 91% and 87% for fine and coarse PM, respectively, compared to the regular HRA. Minor differences in risk between Corlu and Cerkezkoy suggest that urban pollution sources could be at least as influential on human health as industrial sources. (C) 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.