Ultrasound assisted extraction for the recovery of phenolic compounds from waste hazelnut shell
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Hazelnut shell is the primary byproduct of hazelnut industry which has the potential source of antioxidants, and phenolics with interest of pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic industries. The main goal of this study is to determine effects of extraction method, extraction time, solvent type, solid to liquid ratio, and particle size on extraction yield, antioxidant capacity, and total phenolic content of waste hazelnut shell. The highest extraction yield was found as 15.4% by using methanol as solvent, in combined extraction for 16 h total extraction time. As for the best antioxidant capacity, 0.0508 mg TE mL-1 was observed by using methanol as a solvent in ultrasonic extraction, whereas the highest phenolic content was found as 0.188 mg GAE mL-1 by Soxhlet extraction with acetone for 8 h. After extraction of hazelnut shell waste, major components were found as oleic and palmitic acids for all solvent types according to GC-MS results.
SourceEnvironmental Research & Technology (Online)