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dc.contributor.authorKurt Karakuş, Perihan Binnur
dc.contributor.authorAlegria, Henry
dc.contributor.authorBirgül, Aşkın
dc.contributor.authorGüngörmüş, Elif
dc.contributor.authorJantunen, Liisa
dc.date.accessioned2020-01-15T08:31:22Z
dc.date.available2020-01-15T08:31:22Z
dc.date.issued2018-06en_US
dc.identifier.citationKurt Karakuş, P. B., Alegria, H., Birgül, A., Güngörmüş, E., and Jantunen, L. (2018). Organophosphate ester (OPEs) flame retardants and plasticizers in air and soil from a highly industrialized city in Turkey. Science of the Total Environment, 625, 555-565. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.12.307en_US
dc.identifier.issn0048-9697
dc.identifier.urihttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.12.307
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/11147/7583
dc.description.abstractPassive air samples were collected at eight sites in Bursa, Turkey during five sampling periods between February–December 2014. Locations encompassed urban, suburban, industrial, rural and background environments. Soil samples (n = 8) were collected at each site during February 2014. Six OPEs were detected in samples: tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(chloropropyl) phosphate (TCPP), triphenyl phosphate (TPHP), tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP), tris(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (TEHP), and tris(2-isopropylphenyl) phosphate (T2iPPP). Frequency of detection in air samples was TCPP and TPHP (100%) > TBOEP (88%) > TCEP (85%) > TEHP (78%) > T2iPPP (20%). Total OPEs in air per site by sampling period (excluding non-detects) ranged from 529 to 19,139 pg/m3. In soil, total OPEs ranged from 38 to 468 ng/g dw. In air, alkylated OPEs dominated followed by halogenated and aryl OPEs. In air, annual mean concentrations were TBOEP > TCPP > TPHP > T2iPPP > TEHP > TCEP. In soils, alkylated OPEs were dominant at six sites and chlorinated OPEs at two sites. A comparison of OPE profiles between air and soil suggests that soils may be partly a source of OPEs to air. Mean concentrations in air were not directly proportional to temperature, and there were differences between alkylated compared to halogenated and aryl OPEs. In air, total and alkylated OPEs levels were fairly uniform, whereas more variability was found for the halogenated and aryl compounds. The relative contribution to total OPEs decreases for alkylated OPEs and increases for halogenated OPEs in samples going from background to suburban to urban and industrial sites. Levels of individual OPEs were all positively correlated between air and soils. In air, correlations between individual compounds were weak to moderate and were only statistically significant for TBOEP and TPHP. In soils, correlations were generally stronger and statistically significant only for TPHP and T2iPPP.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipTUBITAK (112Y315)en_US
dc.language.isoengen_US
dc.publisherElsevieren_US
dc.relation.isversionof10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.12.307en_US
dc.rightsinfo:eu-repo/semantics/openAccessen_US
dc.subjectOrganophosphate estersen_US
dc.subjectPlasticizersen_US
dc.subjectFlame retardantsen_US
dc.subjectEnvironmental factorsen_US
dc.subjectSuburbanen_US
dc.titleOrganophosphate ester (OPEs) flame retardants and plasticizers in air and soil from a highly industrialized city in Turkeyen_US
dc.typearticleen_US
dc.contributor.institutionauthorGüngörmüş, Elif
dc.relation.journalScience of the Total Environmenten_US
dc.contributor.departmentIzmir Institute of Technology. Chemical Engineeringen_US
dc.identifier.volume625en_US
dc.identifier.startpage555en_US
dc.identifier.endpage565en_US
dc.identifier.wosWOS:000426356600056
dc.identifier.scopusSCOPUS:2-s2.0-85039713049
dc.relation.tubitakinfo:eu-repo/grantAgreement/TUBITAK/ÇAYDAG/112Y315
dc.relation.publicationcategoryMakale - Uluslararası Hakemli Dergi - Kurum Öğretim Elemanıen_US


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